What Is Minerals?

A substance can be classified as vitamin as it satisfies 2 criteria.

Humans require several mineral element for optional functioning . these minerals elements are broadly divided into two classes i.e. macro & micro minerals .

Macro minerals also referred to as major minerals are distinguished from micro minerals by their occurrence in the body .thus macro minerals constitute at least 0.01% of the total body weight or occur in minimum quantity of 5 g in a 60 kg body .

They are required in amount greater then 100mg per day on the other hand ,requirement of micro minerals varies from a few milligrams to micrograms per day .

  • Do not provide energy but involved in generation of energy through their metabolic function.
  • Maintaining body fluid balance.
  • Regulation of acid base balance.
  • For structural units(bones and teeth)
  • Haemoglobin and thyroxin formation
  • Some are cofactors in the enzymation reactions.

Macro minerals largely perform structural functions e.g 99% of body calcium 85% of phosphorus And 50-60 % of magnesium is in the bone & is calcified tissue.

And 50-60 % of magnesium is in the bone & is calcified tissue . Besides this phosphorus is an important component of phospholipids & phosphor proteins that from important structure component of sell membranes . some micro minerals in addition to the structural role , are involved in catalytic function e.g magnesium exerts catalytic & regulatory role in number of biochemical reactions .

calcium function as a messenger in signal transduction in never & muscle cells . phosphorus is involved In the regulation of enzymes.

Although macro minerals are mainly involved in structural role while micro elements are involved in catalytic role , there seems to be some overlap , for some minerals .

What Is Calcium In Food

Among minerals , calcium (CA) is the most abundantly present in humans, representing 52% of the body’s minerals content and amounting to 1.2% of the body weight .

In the elementary composition of the human body , calcium ranks fifth after oxygen , carbon , hydrogen and nitrogen , and it makes up 1.9% of the body by weight . Nearly all (99%)of total body calcium is located in the skeleton .The remaining 1% is equally distributed between the teeth and soft tissues , with only 0.1% in the extra cellular fluid (ECF)

Calcium Function In Body

  • Do not provide energy but involved in generation of energy through their metabolic function.

Mineralization of bones

  • Bone is a unique living tissue as it is rigid and strong and at the same time light enough to be moved to be moved by coordinated muscle contractions.
  • Two-third of the weight of bones is due minerals and the remaining onethird is due to water and collagen. Bone is continuously resorbed (dissolved) and formed thought out life and there are three major types of bone cells that play an important role in this process.

Calcium Food Sources

  • Dairy product requires are the primary sources of calcium followed by gains and pulses. Among the millets, ragi contains substantial amount of calcium. The bio-availability of calcium from different dietary sources is variable e.g. phytates in whole grain cereals inhibit calcium absorption. Fermentation, on the hand, reduces phytates content and improves calcium absorption.

Factors affecting calcium absorption

  • The amount of calcium that we eat need not to be the amount of calcium that gets absorbed. The different between the two is primarily due to certain factors which may hinder/ enhance the absorption or bioavailability of calcium.The amount of calcium that we eat need not to be the amount of calcium that gets absorbed. The different between the two is primarily due to certain factors which may hinder/ enhance the absorption or bioavailability of calcium.
  • Thus, the bioavailability of calcium can be defined as the fraction of dietary calcium that is potentially absorbable by the intestine and can be used for physiological function, particularly bone mineralization or to limit bone loss. Lower the intake, higher the percentage of calcium absorbed.

Calcium Supplements

  • Calcium supplement are universally recommended for postmenopausal women. When taken with a meal, the absorption is greatest when calcium is taken in doses of 500 mg or less.

Deficiency Of Calcium

  • Dietary calcium intake above or below the requirements can result in the irruption of several signs of deficiencies and excess.
  • Increased bone resorption.
  • Reduce the rate of growth of the skeleton
  • Rickets in children.
  • Calcium and Osteoporosiestimated at 3% per year in the first five years after menopause.
  • Oss in postmenopausal women.
  • Women with calcium intakes below 400 mg per day may benefit by increasing their dietary intakes or by taking supplements of calcium.

Calcium Toxicity

  • High blood calcium may be asymptomatic or can cause constipation, nausea and vomiting, increased urination, thirst, muscle weakness, kidney failure, irritability, confusion, psychosis and coma.
  • Since the efficiency of absorption from large doses is poor, no adverse effects have been found with calcium supplements providing up to 2400mg/day.
  • However, in practice, an upper limit on calcium intake of 3 g is recommended by the FAO/WHO 2004

Daily Dietary Calcium Requirements

  • Requirements for calcium depend upon the rate at which calcium is incorporated into bone. It is hence highest during periods of growth especially during infancy and fall after peak bone mass is achieved at about 25 years of age.
  • The RDA for Indian adult male is based on replacing the losses of calcium in urine, stools, bile and sweat which is estimated to be 700 mg calcium per day.
  • The fractional absorption in adults is taken to be 20-30% in the presence of adequate vitamin D. Additional calcium for growth, pregnancy and lactation are calculated separately.